Alveolus: the socket within the jaws in which the reserve crown or roots of a tooth lie
Brachygnathia: overbite, parrot mouth. A congenital deformity in which the upper incisors overlap the lower incisors
Buccal: (or Vestibular) relating to the cheek--surfaces of the teeth and tissues facing the cheek –the outside surface of the teeth or tissues
Canine Teeth: the teeth between the incisors and the cheek teeth, usually in male horse—the fighting teeth. Rudimentary in 28% of mares
Caps: the remnants of deciduous cheek teeth that cover the erupting permanent premolars and are shed
Cementum: the living, calcified dental tissue, similar in composition to bone, that covers all of the crown and root in the horse's cheek teeth, mostly fills the infundibular cavity, and along with the periodontal ligament, attaches the root to the bone of the alveolus
Cheek teeth: the premolars and molars, exclusive of the first premolar, the wolf tooth
Congenital: a condition present at or before birth, not necessarily inherited
Crown: the part of the tooth containing enamel—both the visible part and reserve crown
Deciduous: baby teeth, primary teeth: incisors and premolars only
Dentin: softer calcified tissue that makes up the bulk of each tooth
Diastema: (diastemata pl) a space between the teeth. A gap between teeth often in older horses. that traps feed leading to periodontal disease
Enamel: the hard, calcified, inert dental tissue that covers the dentin of the tooth and provides wear resistance. It is the outer substance on most of the incisor teeth, but is covered by cementum on the cheek teeth
Equilibration: see Floating
Fistula: a tract leading from one area to another, usually caused by a wound or infection.
Floating: the process of rasping or grinding down the sharp enamel overgrowths (points) on the outside (buccal surface) of upper cheek teeth and the inside (lingual surface) of lower cheek teeth.
Hook: a sharp overgrowth that develops on a tooth through abnormal wear. Most common on the upper 1st cheek teeth (second premolar) and lower last molar
Hypsodont: Teeth which continue to erupt throughout most of the life of the animal they're attached to.
Incisors: the front teeth. Permanent incisors replace baby teeth at 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5 years
Lingual: pertaining to the tongue. The side of the teeth closest to the tongue
Malocclusion: abnormal contact between opposing upper and lower teeth.
Mandible: The paired bones of lower jaw
Maxilla: the paired bones of the upper jaw
Molars: the last three grinding teeth in the jaws, permanent teeth only, erupting at 1, 2, and 3 and 1/2 years of age.
Occlusion: the contact between opposing teeth
Overbite: mandibular brachygnathism
Parrot Mouth: overbite, mandibular brachygnathism
Periapical: around the tip of the root
Periodontal: around the tooth. The gums and tissue around the reserve crown and root.
Points: sharp enamel overgrowths on the outside(buccal) surface of upper cheek teeth and the inner (lingual) surface of lower cheek teeth caused by normal mastication
Premolars: The first three cheek beyond the “wolf” teeth in each jaw. Permanent premolars replace deciduous teeth between 2 and 4 years of age
Prognathism: underbite, or "monkey mouth". The lower (mandibular) incisors extend out beyond the upper incisors. Seen more commonly in minis
Pulp Cavity: sensitive canals in the central portion of a tooth that contain tissue, nerves, and blood vessels, multiple in cheek teeth
Quidding: dropping of partially chewed boluses of food mixed with saliva from the mouth
Root: The part of the tooth normally embedded in the alveolar socket, not containing enamel and composed of cementum
Rotary Disc Power Floats: power floating instruments with a flat disc head.
Rotary Burr Power Floats: power floating instrument with a Dremel-like burr head
Shear Mouth: A sharp, increased angulation of the occlusal surface
Step Mouth: a cheek teeth row with a step in the occlusal surface, probably due to overgrowth of one tooth because of loss of its occlusal opposite
Speculum: mechanical device used to hold the mouth open
Triadan Numbering System: system for precise numbering of teeth and their position
Ulcer: a break in the skin or gums exposing deeper structures
Underbite: see prognathism
Wave Mouth: abnormal wear of cheek teeth where the occlusal surface has a wavelike appearance.
Wolf Teeth: Small, vestigial first premolar that is located just in front of the first cheek tooth and may interfere with comfortable placement of the bit